The truth is, your vagina is home to billions of bacteria. And the precise makeup of this bacteria changes on a daily — sometimes hourly — basis.
Change is normal. These smell variations are likely a result of your menstrual cycle, your hygiene habits, and others.
1. Tangy or fermented
It’s very common for vaginas to produce a tangy or sour aroma. Some compare it to the smell of fermented foods. In fact, yogurt, sourdough bread, and even some sour beer contain the same type of good bacteria that dominate most healthy vaginas: Lactobacilli.
Reasons for a tangy odor
- Acidity. The pH of a healthy vagina is slightly acidic, between 3.8 and 4.5. “The Lactobacilli bacteria keep the vagina acidic,” says doctors “This protects against an overgrowth of the bad kinds of bacteria.”
2. Coppery like a penny
Many people report smelling a coppery, metallic vaginal odor. This is usually nothing to worry about. Rarely, it signifies a more serious problem.
Reasons for a coppery odor
- Blood. Blood contains iron, which has a metallic smell. The most common reason for blood is menstruation. During your period, blood and tissue shed from your uterine lining and travel through your vaginal canal.
- Sex. Light bleeding after sex can be common. This is usually due to vaginal dryness or vigorous sex that can cause small cuts or scrapes. To prevent this, try using lube.
A coppery smell can also be due to less common, but serious, causes of vaginal bleeding. The metallic scent shouldn’t linger too long after your period is over. If your vagina has had contact with semen, this may change the pH level and cause a metallic smell.
If you’re experiencing bleeding unrelated to your period or the metallic smell continues with itching and discharge, it’s best to see a doctor.
When we say sweet we don’t mean freshly baked cookies sweet. We mean robust and earthy. But don’t fret, a sweetish tinge is no cause for concern.
Reasons for a sweet odor
- Bacteria. Yep, bacteria again. Your vaginal pH is an ever-changing bacterial ecosystem. And sometimes this means you might smell a little sweet.
An odor similar to bleach or ammonia could be a couple different things. Sometimes, this odor is reason to see a doctor.
Reasons for a chemical odor
- Urine. Urine contains a byproduct of ammonia called urea. A buildup of urine in your underwear or around your vulva could put off a chemical smell. Keep in mind, urine smelling strongly of ammonia is a sign of dehydration.
- Bacterial vaginosis. It’s also possible a chemical-like smell is a sign of bacterial vaginosis.
No, it’s not just you. Many people find a similarity between body odor and marijuana. But thanks to the sweat glands down there, at least we do know why vaginas and body odor can smell so similar.
Reasons for a skunky odor
- Emotional stress. Your body contains two types of sweat glands, apocrine and eccrine. The eccrine glands produce sweat to cool your body down and the apocrine glands respond to your emotions. These apocrine glands populate your armpits and, you guessed it, your groin.
You’ve probably heard an abnormal vaginal odor described as fishy. In fact, fresh fish shouldn’t smell like much at all. Decomposing fish is the more apt comparison. Why? Trimethylamine, which is the chemical compound responsible for both the distinct aroma of rotting fish and some abnormal vaginal odors.
Reasons for a dead fish odor
- Bacterial vaginosis. You get bacterial vaginosis when there’s an overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria in the vagina. And these anaerobic organisms are odorous.
- Trichomoniasis. This is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection and easily treatable with a course of antibiotics. It’s known for its pungent fishy odor.
In rare cases, a fishy smell is indication of a more serious condition.
7. Rotten smell
A rotten odor that makes your nose wince and your face contort is definitely not the norm. If the smell is putrid, like a dead organism, it may not be your vagina but something in your vagina.
Reasons for a rotten odor
- A forgotten product. Inadvertently letting a menstrual product like a tampon go days, even weeks, inside a vagina is much more common than you’d think. “I can’t tell you how many menstrual products I’ve taken out of patients,” says a doctor. “This happens to lots and lots of people. It isn’t something you need to be embarrassed about.”